Autonomía digital y tecnológica

Código e ideas para una internet distribuida

Linkoteca. Comunes


The problem of sustaining a public resource that everybody is free to overuse—the ‘tragedy of the commons’—emerges in many social dilemmas, such as our inability to sustain the global climate. Public goods experiments, which are used to study this type of problem, usually confirm that the collective benefit will not be produced. Because individuals and countries often participate in several social games simultaneously, the interaction of these games may provide a sophisticated way by which to maintain the public resource. Indirect reciprocity, ‘give and you shall receive’, is built on reputation and can sustain a high level of cooperation, as shown by game theorists. Here we show, through alternating rounds of public goods and indirect reciprocity games, that the need to maintain reputation for indirect reciprocity maintains contributions to the public good at an unexpectedly high level. But if rounds of indirect reciprocation are not expected, then contributions to the public good drop quickly to zero. Alternating the games leads to higher profits for all players. As reputation may be a currency that is valid in many social games, our approach could be used to test social dilemmas for their solubility.

Un commun = des personnes ayant accès à une ressource qui créent collectivement des règles pour produire et préserver des ressources.

Pas seulement la ressource, aussi les relations sociales autour de cette ressource
Faisceau de droits (usage, glanage,…) VS droit exclusif de propriété
Collectif = micro-institution (E. Ostrom dans la lignée de certains économistes institutionnels)

Commons» showcases over a hundred sharing-related case studies and model policies from more than 80 cities in 35 countries. It witnesses a growing global movement and serves as a practical reference guide for community-based solutions to urgent challenges faced by cities everywhere. This book is a call to action meant to inspire readers, raise awareness, and strengthen the sharing movement worldwide. «Sharing Cities» shows that not only is another world possible — but that much of it is already here.