Autonomie numérique et technologique

Code et idées pour un internet distribué

Linkothèque. Carnet de bord

The Linksys WRT3200ACM has Tri-Stream 160 technology that doubles bandwidth to help maintain speed better than most dual-band routers. Additional features such as MU-MIMO technology helps each device stay connected to the network at the fastest possible speed without interfering with the performance of other devices.

Linksys’ Smart Wi-Fi smartphone app also lets you manage and monitor your network from anywhere at any given time, but it’s the open-source aspect that really shines for security-focused router buyers, since you can easily use “packages” from trustworthy open source distributions such as OpenWRT or DD-WRT and establish a secure VPN, monitor and analyze network traffic or detect network intrusions instantaneously. Since the firmware packages are all open source, that also means that they’ve been extensively “peer-reviewed” by security experts, making them much more likely to be free of vulnerabilities that hackers can exploit.

SPs (Internet Service Providers) generally offer DNS services to their customers, so when you don’t set up DNS servers on your computer or router, your DNS queries will run on your ISPs DNS servers. Using the default ISP DNS servers can result in certain problems while browsing the Internet:

Issues can happen with DNS requests themselves; most of the time they’re unencrypted and this leaves room for different types of DNS attacks.

I surf the web an awful lot, probably slightly more than your average 13 year old geek. I notice that a lot of sites load rather slowly mostly because your waiting on content from outside the specific domain. For example if you go to a website like (one of my favorites) you will notice it takes quite a long time loading the ads. It would be nice if you could block advertisements… oh you can?

Although I mentioned I spend most of my time on the net looking for information, not entertainment. These ads really hinder my search speed!

So here is a quick way you can block all the ads. Not only will your surfing be faster but you will also save some bandwidth.

First off I would like to thank the fine folks at for doing all the leg work and collecting all the data necessary for this to work.

Captura de pantalla de

The game about the mad year 2020.


Deepin Scrot is a slightly advanced terminal-based screenshot tool. Similar to the others, you should already have it installed. If not, get it installed through the terminal by typing:

sudo apt-get install scrot

After having it installed, follow the instructions below to take a screenshot:

To take a screenshot of the entire screen:

scrot myimage.png

To take a screenshot of the selected aread:

scrot -s myimage.png

I’m still early on my journey in front of a camera, but I wanted to share some tricks I’m using to come across more ‘naturally’, particularly the use of expanded awareness. These are: – to remain aware of the room while talking to the lens – to notice and avoid a natural ‘compression’ of space between myself and the lens – to continuously bring to mind the idea that there is a human that I’m in dialogue with

Las descargas irregulares no son un problema. En realidad, nunca lo fueron. En su momento eran, simplemente, la evidencia de que la distribución existente no satisfacía la demanda, y que eran precisos nuevos canales que lo hiciesen. Las descargas de música no disminuyeron cerrando páginas de descarga ni persiguiendo a usuarios: disminuyeron cuando llegó Spotify. Las de películas, cuando llegó Netflix. Siempre habrá un porcentaje de usuarios que en ningún caso iban a pagar por un contenido, que intentarán obtenerlo gratis, y tecnológicamente, siempre tendrán posibilidad de hacerlo.

more than 56 million developers who created 60+ million new repositories this past year

GitHub recorded 35% more repositories created than last year and 7.5 hours faster pull request merge times in teams’ most productive and collaborative weeks.

GitHub tracked an increase in open source activity on weekends and holidays, at the same time that Enterprise developer activity dropped. Open source project creation is also up by 25% year over year since April 2020.

The data suggests that even when developers conclude their regular work, they are turning to open source projects for creative outlets. These projects often provide meaningful connections and community while the world is stuck at home.

GitHub reports that its community is becoming more diverse as those who identify as developers have decreased from 60% in 2016 to 54% in 2020. Profiles related to education are growing (up from 17% in 2016 to 23% in 2020), followed by users working in data. The platform is becoming more approachable for collaborators who do not come from a development background.

In my opinion, “instant, public, global messaging and conversation” should, in fact, be global. Distributed between independent organizations and actors who can self-govern. A public utility, without incentives to exploit the conversations for profit. A public utility, to outsurvive all the burn-rate-limited throwaway social networks. This is what motivated me to create Mastodon.

Besides, Twitter is still approaching the issue from the wrong end. It’s fashionable to use machine learning for everything in Sillicon Valley, and so Twitter is going to be doing sentiment analysis and whatnot when in reality… You just need human moderators. Someone users can talk to, who can understand context. Unscalable for Twitter, where millions of people are huddled together under one rule, but natural for Mastodon, where servers are small and have their own admins.

the telecom operator locates the damaged area by zeroing in on the problematic part. To do this, they send signal pulses through the cable from one end or base station. The damaged area (break) will bounce back the pulse to the signalling site which sent the data. Calculating the time delay from the reflected signal, engineers can zero in on the exact point and area of the problem. Then they send out a large cable repair ship, with fresh optic cables to replace the defective part under the sea. The cable is then lifted from the sea bed using special hooks (grapnel) and dragged onto the ship. The faulty cables are then spliced onboard, joined with a fresh cable, sealed with a watertight and anticorrosive covering and returned back to the seabed. Then the ship sends out the information to the base stations to test the cable again. Once the test signals are reaching the destination, the work is confirmed and the cable is repaired successfully. The data is then switched on and the connection restored. The entire process can take up to 16 hours or more, depending the number of cable breaks, successful repairs, time of day, weather conditions at sea and ships around the area.

Climate disaster could take away both their connection and a crucial source of income. And, ironically enough, these cables are used to help gather data on climate impacts, so climate change could mess up the very tools we need to monitor the impact of climate change.

The thing about buttons, though, is there seems to be some invisible magic taking place between the moment you press them down and when you get the expected result. You can never really be sure you caused the soft drink to appear without opening up the vending machine to see how it works.

Maybe there’s a man inside who pulls out the can of soda and puts it in the chute. Maybe there’s a camera watching the machine, and someone in a distant control room tells the machine to dispense your pop.

You just don’t know, and that’s how conditioning works. As long as you get the result you were looking for after you press the button, it doesn’t matter. You will be more likely to press the button in the future (or less likely to stop).

The problem here is that some buttons in modern life don’t actually do anything at all. The magic between the button press and the result you want is all in your head. You never catch on – because you are not so smart.

New Yorkers (those who don’t jaywalk, that is) have for years dutifully followed the instructions on the metal signs affixed to crosswalk poles:

To Cross Street

Push Button

Wait for Walk Signal

But as The New York Times reported in 2004, the city deactivated most of the pedestrian buttons long ago with the emergence of computer-controlled traffic signals. More than 2,500 of the 3,250 walk buttons that were in place at the time existed as mechanical placebos. Today there are 120 working signals, the city said.

About 500 were removed during major construction projects. But it was estimated that it would cost $1 million to dismantle the nonfunctioning mechanisms, so city officials decided to keep them in place.

Most of the buttons were scattered throughout the city, mainly outside of Manhattan. They were relics of the 1970s, before computers began choreographing traffic signal patterns on major arteries.

La razón de esto la explicaron hace un tiempo en medios como el New York Times o Science Alert. Una ley estadounidense llamada ‘Americans With Disabilities Act’ y aprobada en 1990 que buscaba proteger a las personas con discapacidades físicas de situaciones como la de no poder entrar en un ascensor a tiempo antes del cierre de puertas. De repente, por ley, ya no se podían cerrar las puertas voluntariamente si ello implicaba cerrar el paso a alguien que usase una silla de ruedas o unas muletas.

Sin embargo, al mismo tiempo, quedó patente que botones como el de cerrar las puertas de un ascensor dan cierta sensación de control de una situación aunque a nivel efectivo no hagan nada. Esa sensación de control reduce el estrés y la ansiedad, según la profesora Ellen J. Langer de la Universidad de Harvard.

Así que a partir de 1990, todos los ascensores empezaron a fabricarse con botones de cerrar puertas que no hacían nada.

Captura de pantalla de is a grassroots website, that is trying to let people know about ethical and easy-to-use alternatives to well-known websites, apps and other software. is a fork of a former website known as ‘’. It was created and maintained by an anonymous person and gained popularity in 2018 and 2019 – especially on the Fediverse.

Electronic Frontier Foundation co-founder John Gilmore said that the internet routed around censorship. But what if the net stopped being one big, connected thing? National governments are busy walling off their own sections, and in some cases changing the technologies that underpin it. What’s more, they’re not stopping at their own borders.

There are terms for this sliced-up internet, with rules that vary between countries. Some call it digital balkanisation. Others, like Julie Owono, call it the splinternet.

This set of digital gated communities is growing. Russia has the Runet, its domestic internet infrastructure, which it has been working to make independent from the external internet since at least 2014. The country unplugged the Runet from the rest of the world a year ago in a test run to see how it would fare on its own.

Still, national calls to wall off portions of the internet are spreading. In 2013, then-Brazilian president Dilma Rouseff called on countries in the UN to build their own sovereign internet government structures. North Korea has Kwangmyong, a centrally administered network accessible only via a heavily monitored Linux distro called Red Star. Cuba has RedCubana, an alternative to the open net that houses Cuban versions of popular websites like Wikipedia, along with local apps. Iran has its National Information Network (aka the Halal internet), a government-controlled network that hosts Iranian sites and tracks all its users. It allows heavily moderated access to the outside world.

The battleground of this splinternet, and where we really see what’s at stake, is the African continent, where billions are yet to be connected.

China has invested just over $300bn in Africa in the last two decades. In 2018 President Xi Jinping pledged $60bn in assistance, investment, and loans, $10bn of which will come from Chinese companies investing in the region.

Chinese companies have been busy helping countries in Africa roll out everything from fibre networks to smart city initiatives and data centres, as the Australian Strategic Policy Institute has documented.

Pop Shell is a keyboard-driven layer for GNOME Shell which allows for quick and sensible navigation and management of windows. The core feature of Pop Shell is the addition of advanced tiling window management — a feature that has been highly-sought within our community. For many — ourselves included — i3wm has become the leading competitor to the GNOME desktop.

Openbox is a stacking window manager, but there is a simple shell script called winfuncs, which can be used to tile the openbox stacked windows at any time. Winfuncs is based on wmctrl, an old command line tool that provides access for doing many neat things to many modern Linux window managers. This is almost as good as having a tiling manager; it only fails in that new windows opened after a tile has been completed will not be automatically put into the tiling scheme. Each time a new window is opened the tiling button or key has to be re-applied to include it in the tiling. Winfuncs generates two tiling modes, one displays the open windows in a rectangular matrix mode assigning the same area to each window and one stacks the windows in an orderly, regular manner in the upper left corner of the screen.

What the heck is going on? Big brands turned off millions of dollars of digital ad spending, and saw no change in business outcomes. Small businesses tuned their digital marketing and reduced the number of ad impressions, clicks, and traffic to their sites, but saw business activity go up, instead of down.

Some brands paused digital ad spending in 2020, due to the pandemic. If they saw no change in business outcomes, they can be very selective in what spending they turn back on, because those expenses were not driving incremental business anyway. Other advertisers reduced the number of websites and mobile apps showing their ads by going to a strict include-list. This prevents the vast majority of fly-by-night fake sites and mobile apps from sapping their digital ad budgets. And finally, smart advertisers should run more controlled experiments like eBay did in 2012 and prove to themselves what portion of digital advertising truly drives incremental business outcomes, versus the portion of the spending that is just wasted to bot activity.

Hola, gente contagiada. Este grupo de Telegram es una virus-emergency-version-conversation del programa radiofónico « On Collaboration ». Qué supone o qué podemos aprender de lo que está haciendo la ciudadanía para apoyarse mientras la crisis, dentro de los tiempos en los que nos movemos con la familia en casa, y demás.

Como este grupo se convierte en podcast, nos comunicamos únicamente por notas de voz. Por favor, hablad mucho, o hablad poco, escuchad todas o no escuchéis ninguna de las notas de voz, sentíos cómodos en este grupo de hacer lo que queráis y cuando queráis de aquí adelante.

Hola gente contagiada de civismo, de curiosidad, de necesidad de aprendizaje, de compañía. Queremos recuperar las inteligencias colectivas, las estrategias, herramientas y vivencias en torno a la colaboración y los nuevos agenciamientos producidos en este contexto tan crítico y especial del Sars-Cov2 en nuestra realidad.

Pues, adelante.

There was a time when Thunderbird’s future was uncertain, and it was unclear what was going to happen to the project after it was decided Mozilla Corporation would no longer support it. But in recent years donations from Thunderbird users have allowed the project to grow and flourish organically within the Mozilla Foundation. Now, to ensure future operational success, following months of planning, we are forging a new path forward. Moving to MZLA Technologies Corporation will not only allow the Thunderbird project more flexibility and agility, but will also allow us to explore offering our users products and services that were not possible under the Mozilla Foundation. The move will allow the project to collect revenue through partnerships and non-charitable donations, which in turn can be used to cover the costs of new products and services.

Gobernar es partir de un plan a priori, habitar es escuchar.

… hay que quedarse en casa. ¿Y la gente que no tiene casa? Hay que escuchar qué es lo que pasa para poder actuar en ello.

el virus son unas lentes a través de las que mirar la realidad.

La palabra Apocalipsis significa revelación. Se revela lo escondido. Estamos en un momento en el que, a través de lo que nos muestra el virus, podemos repensar la realidad y transformarla.

El modelo nos pone por debajo. Hay que pensar en una política sin modelos, partir de lo que está pasando.

La opción del libro es esta segunda: asumir activamente, no nostálgicamente, la condición de huérfanos de una revolución que no tiene apego a la realidad.

Esa idea de militancia nostálgica que dice que todo lo que no es el modelo es posmodernismo, es anclarnos a la tristeza y no escuchar lo que ocurre.

Confinement oblige, ça fait maintenant un mois qu’on zone presque toutes chez nous, mais on a tenu à vous concocter un épisode un peu spécial, dans l’espoir de vous redonner le sourire :).

Elles s’aiment, elles nous aiment et nous apprennent à nous aimer, elles se mobilisent ou bien elles stagnent et emmerdent qui ça dérange, elles diffusent, elles écrivent, elle partagent… nos warriors en confinement vont vous réconcilier avec vos corps, vos envies et non envies, et c’est de ça, JUSTE de ça dont on a besoin en ce moment.

Voilà donc un épisode auto-calin pour vous faire du bien !

La plataforma social «València per l’aire» som una iniciativa organitzada de ciutadania col·lectiva, autònoma i plural. Els motius i finalitats generals que ens mouen cerquen solucions eficaces que milloren la qualitat de l’aire urbà de la ciutat de València i de l’entorn metropolità. Ens hem dotat de mitjans tècnics propis que són necessaris per a realitzar mesuraments i vigilància sobre la qualitat de l’aire. Produïm i difonem informació objectiva i socialment accessible sobre la contaminació de l’aire de València i la seua àrea metropolitana. També realitzem un seguiment continuat i unes valoracions especifiques per zones sobre la composició de l’aire i la presència de components tòxics.

BEM — Block Element Modifier is a methodology that helps you to create reusable components and code sharing in front-end development.

BEM is a highly useful, powerful, and simple naming convention that makes your front-end code easier to read and understand, easier to work with, easier to scale, more robust and explicit, and a lot more strict.

The BEM approach ensures that everyone who participates in the development of a website works with a single codebase and speaks the same language. Using BEM’s proper naming convention will better prepare you for design changes made to your website.

Captura de pantalla de

Cette application est proposée par Etalab, département de la DINUM, et permet de visualiser les données DVF (demandes de valeurs foncières), correspondant aux mutations à titre onéreux réalisées les 5 dernières années. Les données DVF brutes sont téléchargeables sur le site depuis le 24 avril 2019 et sont produites par la direction générale des Finances publiques. Vous y trouverez des informations sur le cadre technique et légal de cette publication.

A quoi correspond le prix affiché ?

Il s’agit dun prix « net vendeur », c’est-à-dire ne comprenant ni frais d’agence immobilière, ni frais de notaire. En cas de vente de mobilier (une cuisine équipée par exemple) avec le bien immobilier, le montant de ce mobilier n’est pas compris dans le prix affiché. La TVA est incluse.

PyPI packages not in the standard library:

  • virtualenv is a very popular tool that creates isolated Python environments for Python libraries. If you’re not familiar with this tool, I highly recommend learning it, as it is a very useful tool, and I’ll be making comparisons to it for the rest of this answer.

    It works by installing a bunch of files in a directory (eg: env/), and then modifying the PATH environment variable to prefix it with a custom bin directory (eg: env/bin/). An exact copy of the python or python3 binary is placed in this directory, but Python is programmed to look for libraries relative to its path first, in the environment directory. It’s not part of Python’s standard library, but is officially blessed by the PyPA (Python Packaging Authority). Once activated, you can install packages in the virtual environment using pip.

  • pyenv is used to isolate Python versions. For example, you may want to test your code against Python 2.7, 3.6, 3.7 and 3.8, so you’ll need a way to switch between them. Once activated, it prefixes the PATH environment variable with ~/.pyenv/shims, where there are special files matching the Python commands (python, pip). These are not copies of the Python-shipped commands; they are special scripts that decide on the fly which version of Python to run based on the PYENV_VERSION environment variable, or the .python-version file, or the ~/.pyenv/version file. pyenv also makes the process of downloading and installing multiple Python versions easier, using the command pyenv install.
  • pyenv-virtualenv is a plugin for pyenv by the same author as pyenv, to allow you to use pyenv and virtualenv at the same time conveniently. However, if you’re using Python 3.3 or later, pyenv-virtualenv will try to run python -m venv if it is available, instead of virtualenv. You can use virtualenv and pyenv together without pyenv-virtualenv, if you don’t want the convenience features.
  • virtualenvwrapper is a set of extensions to virtualenv (see docs). It gives you commands like mkvirtualenv, lssitepackages, and especially workon for switching between different virtualenv directories. This tool is especially useful if you want multiple virtualenv directories.
  • pyenv-virtualenvwrapper is a plugin for pyenv by the same author as pyenv, to conveniently integrate virtualenvwrapper into pyenv.
  • pipenv aims to combine Pipfile, pip and virtualenv into one command on the command-line. The virtualenv directory typically gets placed in ~/.local/share/virtualenvs/XXX, with XXX being a hash of the path of the project directory. This is different from virtualenv, where the directory is typically in the current working directory. pipenv is meant to be used when developing Python applications (as opposed to libraries). There are alternatives to pipenv, such as poetry, which I won’t list here since this question is only about the packages that are similarly named.

Standard library:

  • pyvenv is a script shipped with Python 3 but deprecated in Python 3.6 as it had problems (not to mention the confusing name). In Python 3.6+, the exact equivalent is python3 -m venv.
  • venv is a package shipped with Python 3, which you can run using python3 -m venv (although for some reason some distros separate it out into a separate distro package, such as python3-venv on Ubuntu/Debian). It serves the same purpose as virtualenv, but only has a subset of its features (see a comparison here). virtualenv continues to be more popular than venv, especially since the former supports both Python 2 and 3.

Recommendation for beginners:

This is my personal recommendation for beginners: start by learning virtualenv and pip, tools which work with both Python 2 and 3 and in a variety of situations, and pick up other tools once you start needing them.