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Every document in Google Sheets supports the «Chart Tools datasource protocol», which is explained (in a rather haphazard way) in these articles:

«Creating a Chart from a Separate Spreadsheet»
«Query Language Reference»
«Implementing the Chart Tools Datasource Protocol»

To download a specific sheet as a CSV file, replace {key} with the document’s ID and {sheet_name} with the name of the sheet to export:

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/{key}/gviz/tq?tqx=out:csv&sheet={sheet_name}

The datasource protocol is quite flexible. Various other options include:

Response Format: Options include tqx=out:csv (CSV format), tqx=out:html (HTML table), and tqx=out:json (JSON data).

Export part of a sheet: Supply the range={range} option, where the range can be any valid range specifier, e.g. A1:C99 or B2:F.

Execute a SQL query: Supply the tq={query} option, such as tq=SELECT a, b, (d+e)*2 WHERE c < 100 AND x = 'yes'.Export textual data: Supply the headers=0 option in case your fields contain textual data, otherwise they might be cut out during export.